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孔雀開屏利與弊

時間:2018-03-23來源:小學生作文網 編輯:xiaoya 點擊:
孔雀開屏利與弊

孔雀的婚姻形態是一夫多妻制。在野外,一群孔雀中只有一只成年雄孔雀,其余都是雌孔雀和小孔雀。雄孔雀的嫉妒心很強,兩只雄孔雀碰到一起,立刻就會打得你死我活。

圓通山動物園有個孔雀苑,養著一群美麗的綠孔雀。

提起孔雀,人們立刻就會想到孔雀開屏。長長的尾羽像把巨大的折扇刷的一聲打開,五色金翠錢狀斑紋在陽光下耀起一片炫目的光暈,燦爛艷麗,美不勝收。人們常把美麗的姑娘比喻為孔雀。其實,雌孔雀是不長華麗尾羽的,只有雄孔雀才會開屏。

遺憾的是,孔雀苑里那只紫褐冠羽的雄孔雀,已養了兩年多,卻從未見它開屏。即使在春花爛漫的季節,進入了繁殖期,它也好像沒有興趣展覽比五彩霞光還亮麗的尾羽。不僅如此,它剛進園時,那尾羽層層疊疊,厚實茂密,走起路來一顛一顛地往下墜,顯得挺有分量,長度足足有一米六,養了兩年多,不但沒更豐滿更盈實更厚密,反而變薄變短了,量一量只有一米四長了,走路也不再一顛一顛往下墜,而是輕松地微微翹起。

每年秋天是孔雀換羽的季節,只見它舊羽脫落,不見它新羽生長,那尾屏自然就越縮越短,越掉越薄。它滿打滿算才七歲,沒有天災人禍的話,孔雀可以活到十五歲左右,也就是說它正值黃金年齡,處在生命的鼎盛時期,不可能是因衰老而尾屏萎縮頹敗。

說它是患病吧,也不像,它吃得下睡得著,精力充沛,除了尾屏有問題外,身體其他部位的羽毛新陳代謝得十分正常,翼羽更是成長迅速,翅膀比進園時明顯發達了許多。我曾做過比較,剛進園時它從地上飛到籠中那棵樹干,需要扇動十七次翅膀,而現在只需要扇動八次就可登上樹干,扣掉尾屏重量減輕的因素,翼羽豐滿的速度也是很驚人的。

對動物園來說,這是啼笑皆非的事。游客買了門票進孔雀苑,可以說沒有一個是來看你孔雀有多大飛翔本領的,唯一想看的就是孔雀開屏。該長的地方你不長,不該長的地方你瘋長,這不是存心在鬧別扭嗎?

瞧瞧,一大幫游客站在籠子前,有的搖曳手中的鮮花,有的揮舞彩繪手絹,起勁地逗引雄孔雀。據說孔雀有比美的癖好,一見五顏六色的東西在它面前出現,就會因妒忌而開屏。然而,那些游客忙活了半天,雄孔雀只是抖了抖頭頂紫褐冠羽,再無其他表示。民間有看到蛇交尾就要倒霉,看到孔雀開屏就要交好運的說法。這只雄孔雀死活不肯開屏,這些游客一個個悵然若失,乘興而來,敗興而歸。

好像是要向這些游客示威,顯示自己不妥協不開屏的決心,雄孔雀扭轉長長的脖頸,從尾屏上拔下一根寶石藍翎子,扔在地上。

有人說,這只雄孔雀生性慳吝,拔一毛利天下而不為,舍不得為世界增添美感;有的說,這只雄孔雀對人有偏見,故意在和興致勃勃的游客作對;有的說,這是一只患有自虐狂的雄孔雀,病態地要讓自己的形象黯然失色。

這些解釋,都違背了物種的特性,屬于人類一廂情愿的、毫無根據的、強加在孔雀頭上的主觀臆測。如果仔細分析一下孔雀的生態習性,也許就不會埋怨這只紫褐冠羽的雄孔雀拒不開屏了。

許多人都把雄孔雀的尾羽看做是造物主的恩賜,認為這些美艷絕頂的翎子是雄孔雀身上最寶貴的財富,是雄孔雀值得炫耀的資本,是雄孔雀最珍愛的寶貝。其實,這種看法與事實風馬牛而不相及。

僅從生存的角度講,雄孔雀身上這條尾屏,有百害麗無一利。色彩太顯眼,容易被兇獸猛禽發現;長度是身體的兩倍,體積龐大,不利于在叢林里穿行;分量過重,絕對是個累贅,影響飛行的速度和距離。如果一群孔雀在叢林里漫步,一頭饑餓的山豹從遠處經過,首先肯定是看到尾羽長長的雄孔雀,作為自己捕捉的首選目標。

山豹借著灌木的掩護,悄無聲息地向這群孔雀靠近,企圖用埋伏加突然襲擊的辦法來獲得獵物。孔雀們發現遠處的草葉無風自動,雖然還看不到山豹,但感覺到有危險在逼近,驚慌地向叢林深處退卻。

叢林里植被茂盛、荊棘遍地、葛藤縱橫,雌孔雀和還沒長出尾羽的小孔雀憑借著靈活的身體順順利利地鉆過去了;雄孔雀拖著長長的尾屏,一會兒被藤蔓纏住,一會兒遭蒿草捆綁,鉆行得非常艱難。走到一叢羊蹄甲花下,橫七豎八的雞屎藤又掛住了它的尾屏,它嘴啄爪扒,想解開疙瘩,沒想到這些雞屎藤就像蜘蛛網一樣,越掙扎越粘緊得厲害,很快就被捆得像粽子似的動彈不了,只好等著被山豹吃掉。

就算這只雄孔雀運氣好,沒被藤蔓纏死,和其他孔雀一起逃到樹下,山豹已經飛快從后面躥上來了,雌孔雀們一拍翅膀,輕盈地飛上大樹,從起跳到飛翔,瞬間完成,沒有任何拖泥帶水,而雄孔雀因為尾屏過大過重,起跳后,身體脫離了地面,尾屏還拖曳在草叢中,要在離地面約五十公分高的空中逗留兩三秒鐘,翅膀拼命扇動,這才能成功飛起來,山豹不費吹灰之力就把它給撲了下來。

退一萬步來說,雄孔雀以一秒鐘的時間差搶在山豹趕到之前飛離地面,逃到大樹上,血色黃昏,暮靄沉沉,撲了個空的山豹已不知去向,孔雀們疲倦困頓,在大樹上棲息睡覺,因為白天有過一場驚嚇,大家格外謹慎,盡量鉆進茂密的葉叢,將自己隱匿起來,以防萬一。孔雀們的這種擔憂不是多余的,山豹不甘心放棄這頓美餐,躲在附近的草叢里,天黑盡后,以高超的爬樹技巧,登上那棵大樹,瞪大銅鈴似的綠瑩瑩的豹眼,尋找可供捕殺的獵物。其他孔雀鉆在葉叢里安全地躲過了搜查,雄孔雀那條比身體還長兩倍的尾屏,沒法藏嚴實,暴露在外面,被視力極好的山豹一眼就看到了,結實的豹爪踩在尾屏上,就像狐貍被獵人揪住了尾巴一樣……

絕大部分鳥類都有尾羽,但一般都不會超過身體的長度,在飛翔中起舵的作用,在急拐彎時調節身體平衡。也有些鳥,主要是雉科類,尾羽較其他種類的鳥要發達得多,有像馬雞那樣尾部蓬松如花的,也有像長尾雉那樣尾翎超過自己身體兩三倍的。但馬雞的尾羽雖然碩大,卻不長,與強壯的身體比較起來,還算勻稱;長尾雉雖然尾翎長得過分,但只有兩三根,與身體比較起來,重量不算太累贅。

除了傳說中的鳳凰,所有的鳥類中,只有雄孔雀長著這么一條又重又大又長會給生存帶來沉重負擔的尾屏。

據考證,亙古時代的雄孔雀,尾羽不像我們現在看到的那么發達,長度、數量和重量都只有現在的三分之一。尾羽所起的功能,也和絕大多數鳥類相同,在飛翔中把握方向調節平衡。

較長的尾羽還有一個附帶的好處,能在低空用撐開尾羽的辦法突然停止飛行,并垂直降落。這對生存顯然是有利的,因此雄孔雀們都珍愛自己的尾羽,經常在水塘邊汲水梳理。這既是雄性的標志,亦是雄性的驕傲。于是,在求偶的過程中,雄孔雀自覺不自覺地亮出自己的尾屏,以表白自己是健康的強壯的標準的理想的人選,母孔雀也十分在意自己的伴侶是否有堪稱一流的尾屏。久而久之,這變成了求偶必須、審美定勢和牢不可破的傳統習慣。

尾屏長而大的雄孔雀能得到雌孔雀的青睞,尾屏短而小的雄孔雀遭到雌孔雀的白眼,尾屏越長越大就越能得到交配的機會,留下自己的后代,復制自己的基因,這無疑成為自然選擇的機制,那些尾屏短而小的雄孔雀逐漸被優勝劣汰的法則消滅掉。孔雀這個物種本來就實行多偶制婚姻形態,一雄多雌,而出生的雛鳥中兩性比率是基本平衡的,這就是說,只有少數雄孔雀有幸做父親,而多數雄孔雀被迫成為獨身主義者。這使得雄孔雀尾屏的競爭更趨激烈,更加白熱化。尾翎長了還要長,羽色艷麗了還要艷麗;你每一根尾翎上有兩圈眼狀斑紋,我有三圈眼狀斑紋,比你多了一圈,立刻把你比了下去;你雖然尾屏比我長,但我能高高翹起并像折扇似的打開,我當然獨占鰲頭成為競爭的勝利者……

作為雌孔雀來說,既然可供選擇的機會那么多,胃口必然被吊高,眼光必然會越來越苛刻,好里挑好,美中選美;找一個尾屏出類拔萃的雄孔雀,不僅滿足了愛慕虛榮的天性,所生后代中的小雄孔雀也會繼承尾屏大而艷的遺傳優勢,成為種內競爭的佼佼者。這等于推波助瀾,火上澆油,使得雄孔雀尾屏競爭愈演愈烈。

終于,雄孔雀們發現,自己的尾屏已演化到了不切實際的程度,不僅喪失了尾羽應有的功能,還變成了沉重的包袱、致命的累贅,經常遭到兇獸猛禽的捕殺。明智的雄孔雀們出于對安全的擔憂,希望能停止尾屏競爭。然而,要想改變傳統習俗,談何容易。這需要種群內所有的成員達成一項共識,不然的話,誰停止尾屏競爭,誰就會被淘汰出局,而不停止尾屏競爭者就可趁機大占便宜。

一種不良競爭一旦滑進惡性循環的軌道,想剎車是非常難的。

一方面,越來越長越來越大越來越厚密越來越笨重越來越絢麗的尾屏對生命構成了威脅。另一方面,如果你不讓自己的尾屏越來越長越來越大越來越厚密越來越笨重越來越絢麗你就會在求偶中敗北,失去繁殖后代的機會。這是一種兩難境地,無法掙脫的怪圈。

一般而言,競爭是有益的。物種在競爭中得以進化,社會在競爭中得以進步。競爭出效益,競爭使得世界充滿生機和活力。然而,任何事物都不是絕對的,當競爭處于無序狀態,當不能用理智去控制和調節競爭,也有可能會毀滅一個物種,或破壞一個社會。這種現象,在生物學上,被稱之為“進化的歧途”。

最典型的例子莫過于劍齒象的滅絕了。為了在競爭中獲勝,以霸占更廣闊的領拋和占有更多的食物資源,劍齒象這種動物拼命朝高大強壯這個方向進化。1973年我國甘肅省合水縣挖掘出一具“黃河劍齒象”,體長八米,高四米,門齒長三米多,是現代非洲象的兩倍以上。為了維持龐大身體所需的卡路里,每只劍齒象每天要吃掉兩百公斤以上的食料。忽然有一日,地球進入了冰川期,氣候變冷,植物大片大片死亡,其他中小型獸類因為所需不多,靠有限的食源尚能艱難度日,劍齒象耐不住餓,一群一群倒斃了,變成今天自然博物館里供人參觀和憑吊的化石。

人類社會里這方面的教訓也是屢見不鮮的。例如軍備競賽,作為一個國家或民族來說,強大的國防是安全的保障,但無休止的軍備競賽,耗盡國力,弄得民不聊生,經濟瀕臨崩潰,反而使得國家和民族陷入困境。

再比如現代化城市,越大越有氣派,繁華的大都市是一個國家強盛的標志,設施齊全,生活方便,文化生活豐富多彩,但若一個城市無限制地發展下去,人口膨脹、住房擁擠、空氣污染、交通堵塞、就業困難、治安混亂、偷盜搶劫、吸毒販毒、賣淫嫖娼等社會丑惡現象泛濫成災,反而會給居民帶來煩惱和痛苦。

還有像高考制度,分數面前人人平等,有利于破除特權,杜絕在升學問題上拉關系走后門等不正之風,還能形成激勵機制,使學校勤學苦讀蔚然成風,最大限度地減少人才被埋沒的現象。然而,高考競爭所帶來的負面影響也是顯而易見的,無論學校、家庭還是學生本人,都把分數當做追求的唯一目標,其他方面的能力則被等閑視之,書呆子越來越吃香,真才實學少有人問津……

現在再回過頭來看圓通山孔雀苑那只紫褐冠羽的雄孔雀,就不難理解它為何拒不開屏了。周圍沒有競爭對手,它沒必要再讓自己陷在兩難境地之中。它將尾羽變短變小,并不影響它與這些雌孔雀生活在一起,反而能減輕自己身上的累贅,走得更輕松,飛得更輕盈,何樂而不為呢?

解決問題的辦法其實很簡單,在孔雀苑里再蓋一座鐵籠子,新引進一只雄孔雀,其實也就是引進了競爭機制。紫褐冠羽的雄孔雀生怕自己身邊的雌孔雀被新來的雄孔雀奪去,小心呵護自己的尾屏,勤梳理,勤開屏,很快,那尾屏便越來越長、越來越稠密、越來越濃艷了。

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